Nearly a half-century would pass before Darwin's book, The Origin of Species, was published!By then, the relative ages (order) of the geologic column had already been worked out in some detail.
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That is, an index fossil corresponded to a very specific point in the geologic column.
Once the worth of index fossils had been established on the basis of stratification studies, they could logically be used to extend the correlation of rock formations to other continents.
(The principle of superposition was recognized as early as 1669 by Steno.) Reverend Benjamin Richardson and Reverend Joseph Townsend were a couple of early geologists involved in this work. Obviously, even Lyell was not pushing evolution at the time.
By 1830 Lyell's famous textbook, Principles of Geology, came out. Such was the age of the great creationist geologists!
If rock type mattered then we would expect a zircon crystal's lead content to vary dramatically within the Cambrian or Cretaceous strata according to their local rock types. Cosmic rays, on the other hand, don't penetrate that far into the earth to begin with, so we can rule them out.